It was ordered by Hafsa Sultan, the mother of Süleyman the Magnificent, to be built as a külliye which includes a mosque, a madrasa, an elementary school (sıbyan mektebi), an almshouse and a guesthouse (hankah). The architect of the structure is Acem Ali. A Dar al-Shifa (clinic) and twin baths are added after to these structures the construction of which were completed in 1522
The mosque is one of the most important examples of the 16th century Ottoman architecture in the province. The mosque, which is the main building of the complex, is a two minaret mosque made of cut stones and bricks in an austere style, and covered over with one large dome in the middle and two small domes on sides. The marble minbar is carved and embossed. There are wood carvings in women's mahfel (gathering place).
Mesir paste, which provided relief for Hafsa Sultan from the disease which she was suffering from, is distributed to the public upon the request of herself in Mesir Paste Fest each year in nawruz week as a tradition. Since mesir paste is thrown from the minaret of Sultan Mosque today as it has been for centuries, the mosque is known as “Mesir Mosque” among people.
The madrasa building, which surrounds the courtyard of the mosque from the north, is a ten-roomed structure, the main entrance of which is looking the North. The guest house and the dining room are covered with a barrel vault, and the other places are covered with domes. The two-roomed primary school which is located northeast of the Madrasa building, the bath and Dar al-Shifa in the north have survived thanks to reconstructions made at various times. In the bath, sections for men and women have the same architectural arrangement. Cold and warm sections are side by side. The hot section has seven lighting windows on the rim of the central dome, and also one skylight for each was constructed in the middle of each dome. The hankah and the almshouse of the complex were burned down in a fire during the War of Independence, like many other buildings in Manisa.